Rule 12.120. Pleading Special Matters

(a)     Capacity. Unless required by statute, it is not necessary to allege the capacity of a party to sue or be sued, the authority of a party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity, or the legal existence of an organized association of persons that is made a party, except to the extent required to show the jurisdiction of the court. The initial pleading served on behalf of a minor party must specifically allege the age of the minor party. When a party desires to raise an issue as to the legal existence of any party, the capacity of any party to sue or be sued, or the authority of a party to sue or be sued in a representative capacity, that party must do so by specific negative allegation(s) which must include such supporting particulars as are peculiarly within the pleader’s knowledge.

(b)     Fraud; Mistake; Condition of the Mind. In all allegations of fraud or mistake, the circumstances constituting fraud or mistake must be stated with such particularity as the circumstances may permit. Malice, intent, knowledge, mental attitude, and other condition of mind of a person may be alleged generally.

(c)     Conditions Precedent. In pleading the performance or occurrence of conditions precedent, it is sufficient to allege generally that all conditions precedent have been performed or have occurred. A denial of performance or occurrence must be made specifically and with particularity.

(d)     Official Document or Act. In pleading an official document or official act it is sufficient to allege that the document was issued or the act done in compliance with law.

(e)     Judgment or Decree. In pleading a judgment or decree of a domestic or foreign court, a judicial or quasi-judicial tribunal, or a board or officer, it is sufficient to allege the judgment or decree without setting forth matter showing jurisdiction to render it.

(f)     Time and Place. For the purpose of testing the sufficiency of a pleading, allegations of time and place are material and must be considered like all other allegations of material matter.

(g)     Special Damage. When items of special damage are claimed, they must be specifically stated.

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