Rule 12.420. Dismissal of Actions

(a) Voluntary Dismissal.

(1) By Parties. An action or a claim may be dismissed

(A) before trial by serving, or during trial by stating on the record, a notice of dismissal at any time before a hearing on motion for summary judgment, or if none is served or if the motion is denied, before retirement of the jury in a case tried before a jury or before submission of a nonjury case to the court for decision; or
(B) by filing a stipulation of dismissal signed by all current parties to the action.

(2) By Order of Court; Counterpetition. Except as provided in subdivision (a)(1), an action may not be dismissed at a party’s request except on order of the court and on such terms and conditions as the court deems proper. If the petitioner files a notice of dismissal of the original petition after a counterpetition is served by the respondent, the counterpetition shall not be automatically dismissed.
(3) Adjudication on the Merits. Unless otherwise specified in a notice of stipulation, a voluntary dismissal is without prejudice and does not operate as an adjudication on the merits.

(b) Involuntary Dismissal. Any party may move for dismissal of an action or of any claim against that party for failure of an adverse party to comply with these rules or any order of court. After a party seeking affirmative relief in an action has completed the presentation of evidence, any other party may move for a dismissal on the ground that on the facts and the law the party seeking affirmative relief has shown no right to relief, without waiving the right to offer evidence if the motion is not granted. Involuntary dismissal for lack of jurisdiction, improper venue, or lack of an indispensable party does not act as an adjudication on the merits. All other involuntary dismissals operate as an adjudication on the merits, unless otherwise specified by the court.

(c) Costs. Costs shall be assessed, except that the court may not require the payment of costs of a previously dismissed claim, which was based on or included the same claim against the same adverse party as the current action.

(d) Failure to Prosecute. In all actions in which it appears on the face of the record that for a period of 10 months, no activity by filing of pleadings or order of court has occurred, and no order staying the action has been issued nor stipulation for stay approved by the court, any interested person, whether a party to the action or not, the court, or the clerk of the court may serve notice to all parties that no such activity has occurred. If no such record activity has occurred within the 10 months immediately preceding the service of the notice, and no record activity occurs within 60 days immediately following the service of the notice, and if no stay was issued or approved before the expiration of the 60-day period, the action must be dismissed by the court on its own motion or on the motion of any interested person, whether a party to the action or not, after reasonable notice to the parties, unless a party shows good cause in writing at least 5 days before the hearing on the motion why the action should remain pending. Mere inaction for a period of less than 1 year is not sufficient cause for dismissal for failure to prosecute.

(e) Effect on Lis Pendens. If a notice of lis pendens has been filed in connection with a claim for affirmative relief that is dismissed under this rule, the notice of lis pendens connected with the dismissed claim is automatically dissolved at the same time. The notice, stipulation, or order must be recorded.